n. Term ‘concept art’ first used by by Fluxus Artist Henry Flynt, to describe artwork that ‘deals with language’. Sol leWitt was probably the first to use the term ‘Conceptual Art’ in his essay ‘Paragraphs on Conceptual Art’ in 1967. Art and Language published their ‘Art-Language, the journal of Conceptual Art’ from 1969. In the same year Joseph Kouth declared: ‘all art after Duchamp is conceptual (in nature) because art only exists conceptually’, whilst, for Marzona …’within conceptual art there is an explicit emphasis on the ‘thought’ components of the art and its perception’. (Daniel Marzona, Coinceptual Art, Tashen 2004). Explicit too is an understanding that traditional/commodity oriented ways of producing art were at best antiquated, at worst, banal.
n. an artistic process in which a three-dimensional artistic composition is made from putting together found objects. The origin of the word (in its artistic sense) can be traced back to the early 1950s, when Jean Dubuffet created a series of collages of butterfly wings, which he titled assemblages d’empreintes. However, both Marcel Duchamp (and other Dada artists such as Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven and Louise Nevelson) and Pablo Picasso had been working with found objects for many years prior to Dubuffet. In 1961, the exhibition “The Art of Assemblage” was featured at the New York Museum of Modern Art. The exhibition showcased the work of early twentieth century European artists such as Braque, Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Picasso, and Kurt Schwitters alongside Americans Man Ray, Joseph Cornell and Robert Rauschenberg, and also included less well known American West Coast assemblage artists such as Wallace Berman, Bruce Conner and Edward Kienholz. William C Seitz, the curator of the exhibition, described assemblages as being made up of preformed natural or manufactured materials, objects, or fragments not intended as art materials